Why You Should Stop Using Plastic Bags

How Many Plastic Bags Do Americans Dispose of Each Year?

Floating plastic bag in the ocean that can be mistaken for jellyfish by sea turtles
Floating plastic bags can be mistaken for jellyfish by sea turtles.

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Americans dispose of more than 100 billion plastic bags every year, and only a fraction are ever recycled.

What’s Bad About Plastic Bags

Plastic bags are not biodegradable. They fly off trash piles, garbage trucks, and landfills, and then clog stormwater infrastructure, float down waterways, and spoil the landscape.

If all goes well, they end up in proper landfills where they could take hundreds of years to break down into ever smaller particles that will continue to pollute the soil and water.

Animals Think They're Food

Plastic bags also pose a danger to birds and marine mammals that often mistake them for food. Floating plastic bags regularly fool sea turtles into thinking they are one of their favorite prey: jellyfish.

Sea turtles are shown to have a 50% chance of death after swallowing or choking on discarded plastic bags. This mistaken identity issue is a problem even for camels in the Middle East.

Breaks Down to Smaller Pieces

Plastic bags exposed to sunlight for long enough do undergo physical breakdown. Ultraviolet rays turn the plastic brittle, breaking it into ever smaller pieces.

The small fragments then mix with soil and lake sediments, are picked up by streams, or end up contributing to the Great Pacific Garbage Patch and other oceanic trash deposits.

Scientists have discovered that plastics do break down and release chemicals that harm marine life when ingested.

Waste of Natural Resources

Producing plastic bags, transporting them to stores, and bringing the used ones to landfills and recycling facilities require millions of gallons of petroleum. This non-renewable resource can arguably be better used for more beneficial activities like transportation or heating.

Bans on Plastic Bags

Some businesses have stopped offering their customers plastic bags, and many communities are considering a ban on plastic bags. San Francisco was the first U.S. city to do so, in 2007.

Some states are experimenting with solutions like mandatory deposits, purchasing fees, and outright bans. Some grocery store chains now have policies to minimize use, including charging a small fee to customers who want plastic bags provided.

Switch to Reusable Bags, Recycle the Rest

  1. Switch to reusable shopping bags. Reusable shopping bags made from renewable materials conserve resources by replacing paper and plastic bags. Reusable bags are convenient and come in a variety of sizes, styles, and materials. When not in use, some reusable bags can be rolled or folded small enough to fit easily into a pocket. Make sure you wash them regularly.
  2. Recycle your plastic bags. If you do end up using plastic bags now and then, be sure to recycle them. Many grocery stores now collect plastic bags for recycling. If yours does not, check with your community recycling program to learn how to recycle plastic bags in your area.

Plastic Industry Responds

As with most environmental issues, the plastic bag problem is not as simple as it seems. Plastic industry groups like to remind us that compared to the paper bag alternative, plastic bags are light, have low transportation costs, and require comparatively little (non-renewable) resources to make while generating less waste.

They also are completely recyclable, provided your community has access to the right facilities. Their contribution to landfills is fairly small, and according to a survey, 90% of Americans re-purpose and reuse their plastic bags.

Of course, these arguments are less convincing when the comparisons are made against washable, sturdy reusable shopping bags.

View Article Sources
  1. Clapp, Jennifer and Swanston, Linda, "Doing Away with Plastic Shopping Bags: International Patterns of Norm Emergence and Policy Implementation." Environmental Politics, vol. 18, no. 3, 2009, pp. 315–332, doi:10.1080/09644010902823717

  2. Esan, Ebenenzer, et al. "Exploring the Long-term Effect of Plastic on Compost Microbiome." PLoS One, vol. 14, no. 3, 2019, pp. e0214376., doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0214376

  3. Wilcox, Chris, et al. "A Quantitative Analysis Linking Sea Turtle Mortality and Plastic Debris Ingestion." Scientific Reports, vol. 8, 2018, pp. 12536., doi:10.1038/s41598-018-30038-z

  4. Saido, Katsuhiko et al. "New Analytical Method for the Determination of Styrene Oligomers Formed from Polystyrene Decomposition and its Application at the Coastlines of the North-West Pacific Ocean." Science of the Total Environment, vol. 473–474, 2014, pp. 490–495., doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.12.081

  5. "National Plastic Shopping Bag Recycling Signage Testing." APCO Insight. 2007.

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