Animals Wildlife 13 Things You Didn't Know About Armadillos By Catie Leary Writer and Photographer Georgia State University Catie Leary writes and curates visual stories about science, animals, the arts, travel, and the natural world. our editorial process Catie Leary Updated November 12, 2020 DB Rolenrock / Flickr / CC BY 2.0 Share Twitter Pinterest Email Animals Wildlife Pets Animal Rights Endangered Species Armadillo means "little armored one," and that armor consists of bony plates covered in keratin. There are 22 species of armadillo, and all of them originated in South America. They are diverse in size, behavior, and their habitats. The IUCN considers two species vulnerable and five as near threatened. Six additional species are data deficient and likely threatened. In 2016, scientists divided the greater long-nosed armadillo into three separate species. Scientists have not evaluated those species since the new classification. Here are 13 fascinating facts you may not know about armadillos. 1. The Nine-Banded Is the Only Species Found in the United States Robert Nunnally / Flickr / CC BY 2.0 The nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) is the only armadillo species that migrated to North America. They were long limited to humid subtropical areas of the United States. Now, armadillos are found as far north as Nebraska and Illinois. Warmer winters caused by climate change may further expand their range. They always give birth to identical young formed from the splitting of a single fertilized egg. Among mammals, this is unique to nine-banded and other Dasypus armadillos. When startled, the animal jumps 3-4 feet straight up. 2. Brazilian Three-Banded Armadillos Are Lazarus Species Sean Caffrey / Lonely Planet Images / Getty Images Brazilian three-banded armadillos were believed extinct until 1988. Since then, researchers have found scattered, small populations. Animals that are wrongly believed extinct are called Lazarus species. This species is listed as vulnerable by the IUCN and is considered endangered by Brazil. The total population is unknown because of the difficulties in accurately counting this nocturnal animal. Much of its habitat is being converted to sugarcane and soybean fields. Poaching is another significant threat to the species. 3. Giant Glyptodonts Are Their Extinct Kin Tony Hood / Museums Victoria / CC BY 4.0 Glyptodonts were heavily armored, dinosaur-sized, early mammals. In 2016, scientists determined glyptodonts were a subfamily of armadillos that first appeared 35 million years ago. They became extinct around the end of the last ice age, while their smaller and more lightly armored relatives survived. Humans hunted these two-ton animals for meat. They then created shelters from the bony carapace. 4. They Sleep Up to 16 Hours Each Day MyImages - Micha / Shutterstock As nocturnal animals, armadillos perform most activities — foraging, eating, burrowing, mating — at night. During the daylight hours, they spend up to 16 hours sleeping, usually in burrows. Armadillos rarely share their burrows with other armadillos, although they do share them with tortoises, snakes, and rats. When awake, armadillos spend more time foraging than most mammals. Only two marsupials and ground squirrels spend more active time feeding. 5. They Spread Leprosy Armadillos are the only nonhuman animals to spread leprosy, now called Hansen's Disease. The bacteria that causes the disease thrives due to the armadillo's low body temperature. Researchers believe armadillos acquired Hansen's disease from 15th-century explorers. Humans contract armadillo-borne Hansen's disease through hunting them or eating their meat. In some cases, people become infected from inhaling armadillo fecal spores. 6. Only 2 Species Are Capable of Rolling Into a Ball belizar / Shutterstock A common myth is that armadillos curl up into tight balls and roll away. None actively choose to roll away from predators. The only armadillos able to curl into tight balls are two species belonging to the Tolypeutes genus. These are commonly known as the Brazilian and Southern three-banded armadillos. All other armadillo species have too many plates, making this level of flexibility impossible. 7. The Giant Armadillo Is the Largest Schafer & Hill / Getty Images Giant armadillos (Priodontes maximus) are the largest living armadillos, weighing 45 to 130 pounds in the wild. In captivity, they've reached 176 pounds. They extend nearly 5.9 feet long, including their tail. Their 8-inch middle front claws are the longest claws of any mammal. IUCN lists the giant armadillo as a vulnerable species. Their primary threats are hunting for meat and habitat loss. Additionally, poaching for the illegal pet trade further jeopardizes these giants. 8. The Pink Fairy Is the Smallest Cliff / Flickr / CC BY 2.0 The pink fairy armadillo (Chlamyphorus truncatus) is named for its pink armor and size. It measures between 4 and 6 inches in length and weighs about 3.5 ounces. In addition to the armor on their back, they have a vertical rump plate used to backfill burrows. The species lives in the sandy plain and scrubby grasslands of central Argentina. IUCN lists these rarely seen armadillos as data deficient, but indicators suggest the species may qualify as near threatened. The species is primarily under threat due to habitat loss, while the animal's popularity on social media has led to an increasing number being captured for pets — a situation in which most of them die within eight days. 9. This One Screams to Warn Off Predators crbellette / Getty Images The screaming hairy armadillo (Chaetophractus vellerosus) has more than armor as a defense. It has a pair of screeching lungs. Anytime this species perceives a threat, it emits extremely loud, alarm-like vocalizations. Hunters trap this species for its meat and carapace. Despite this harvest, it is a species of least concern across most of its range, covering portions of Bolivia, Paraguay, Chile, and Argentina. 10. Pichi Are the Only Species to Hibernate Patagonia Pichi armadillo. zixian / Shutterstock Armadillos spend most of their lives sleeping, but the pichi (Zaedyus pichiy) takes it a step further by hibernating every winter. After building up fat stores and settling down in a burrow, the pichi's body temperature drops from 95 degrees to 58 degrees Fahrenheit. These armadillos also enter daily states of torpor, a type of mini-hibernation. This species is found in the Patagonian Steppe and Pampas. 11. Some Species Are at Risk for Extinction While the nine-banded armadillo population currently thrives, other species aren't as lucky. IUCN lists the Brazilian three-banded and giant armadillo as vulnerable. The Pichi, Southern long-nosed, Northern long-nosed, Southern three-banded, and Chacoan naked-tailed armadillo species are listed as near threatened. Six additional species are data-deficient and potentially endangered as well. Hunting and habitat loss are the primary threats to armadillos. Habitat loss drivers are mining and deforestation for palm oil plantations, cattle ranching, and other agro-industry factors. The mining has increased due to the demand for copper to use in electronics. 12. Their Shells Are Used to Make Musical Instruments Charango made of an armadillo carapace. LPLT / Wikimedia Commons / CC BY-SA 3.0 Known as charangos, these 10-stringed instruments are an integral part of traditional Andean music in Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, and Peru. While they were once commonly made from an armadillo's dried shell, contemporary charangos are generally made with wood or sometimes calabash gourds. Armadillo shells are also used to make carnival rattles called matracas. In 2015, it became illegal to own or sell new armadillo matracas. 13. They Are Good Swimmers Danita Delimont / Gallo Images / Getty Images Armadillos are good swimmers and can hold their breath for 4-6 minutes. They walk underwater across the bottom of streams. When facing larger bodies of water, they gulp air to create buoyancy and then dog paddle. This ability to swim allowed them to expand their range. Armadillos crossing the Rio Grande led to the nine-banded armadillo expanding across the United States during the 20th century. Save the Armadillos Avoid South American beef imports and products containing palm oil.Don't buy armadillo trinkets or instruments while on vacation.Support armadillo research and conservation organizations.Use electronics for as long as possible before turning them in for recycling. View Article Sources Feijó, Anderson, and Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro. "Taxonomic Revision of the Dasypus Kappleri Complex, With Revalidations of Dasypus Pastasae (Thomas, 1901) And Dasypus Beniensis Lönnberg, 1942 (Cingulata, Dasypodidae)." Zootaxa, vol. 4170, no. 2, 2016, p. 271, doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4170.2.3 "How High Can A Nine-Banded Armadillo Jump?" The Library of Congress. "Brazilian Three-Banded Armadillo." Xenarthrans. "Mysterious Extinct Glyptodonts Are Actually Gigantic Armadillos, Says Their DNA." American Museum of Natural History. Politis, Gustavo G., and María A. Gutiérrez. “Gliptodontes y Cazadores-Recolectores De La Region Pampeana (Argentina).” Latin American Antiquity, vol. 9, no. 2, 1998, pp. 111–134, doi:10.2307/971990 Ancona, Kier A., and W. James Loughry. "Time Budgets of Wild Nine-Banded Armadillos." Southeastern Naturalist, vol. 8, no. 4, 2009, pp. 587-598, doi:10.1656/058.008.0402 Han, Xiang Y., and Francisco J. Silva. "On the Age of Leprosy." Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 8, no. 2, 2014, p. e2544, doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002544 "Giant Armadillo." Xenarthrans. "Pink Fairy Armadillo." Xenarthrans. Superina, Mariella, and Patrice Boily. "Hibernation and Daily Torpor in an Armadillo, the Pichi (Zaedyus Pichiy)." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, vol. 148, no. 4, 2007, pp. 893-898, doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2007.09.005 "Armadillo." IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. McDonald, and Larson, Julie. "Dasypus Novemcinctus (Nine-Banded Armadillo)." Animal Diversity Web.