Most of the methane in the east Siberian shelf is trapped 200m below the seafloor. Even under the most extreme climate scenarios tested, by 2100 thaw will only extend 10 more meters and 50 meters by 2200.
Unlike severe weather or other anomalies in climate patterns which can often seem like one-off events, these images of a receding glacier offer evidence that detrimental changes to our planet's health do not just lie before us, but are well underway.
That rate of decline is an average however, the research shows. In the southern part of the French Alps glacier loss has been nearly complete, and in the Ecrins Massif the rate of retreat has been three times as great as in the Mont Blanc region.
Switzerland has experienced its driest autumn on record, which as it gives way to the start of winter means that little to no snow has fallen yet. Though some bigger resorts have been able to open some terrain, with the help of snowmaking, many have not.