Are Flush Toilets Appropriate in Third World Countries?

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It is the same story almost everywhere I go; high in the Andes at a llama lodge near Mt. Chimborazo, one has to dump a pail of water into the toilet because the electricity is off.

At the start of a trail to the Sierra Negra volcano on Isabela Island, they somehow installed a flush toilet. I see a pump for the water but no connection, and tried to figure out where the waste went, but could not. This is not a busy place, probably one of the least visited sites in the Galapagos, but they have this convenience. Outside Canada's Algonquin Park, which gets probably a hundred times as many people, they have outhouses or composters.

Credit: Lloyd Alter