Environment Recycling & Waste How to Recycle Light Bulbs and Why You Should By Lauren Murphy Lauren Murphy Writer Western Washington University Lauren Murphy is a writer and environmentalist based in the Pacific Northwest. She holds a degree in Environmental Sciences from Western Washington University. Learn about our editorial process Updated March 14, 2022 Fact checked by Elizabeth MacLennan Fact checked by Elizabeth MacLennan University of Tennessee Elizabeth MacLennan is a fact checker and expert on climate change. Learn about our fact checking process Odilon Dimier / Getty Images Share Twitter Pinterest Email Environment Plastics Zero Waste All types of light bulbs are recyclable, even those that contain traces of mercury. In fact, some types of light bulbs must be recycled—when tossed in the trash, they leach environmentally harmful chemicals into the soil and groundwater. How to Recycle Light Bulbs Each type of light bulb is recycled differently and each state and municipality has different requirements and recycling programs in place. While your curbside pickup recycling program may accept LED light bulbs, it typically will not take incandescent or CFL bulbs that may contain hazardous chemicals. Many states have specific recycling programs available for these materials. Incandescent Light Bulbs Iseo Yang / Getty Images An incandescent light bulb consists of a glass enclosure containing a filament typically made from tungsten, a metal with a high melting point. When you turn an incandescent light bulb on, a current passes through the filament and heats it until it’s white-hot and produces visible light. Because they have a low manufacturing cost, work well on either alternating or direct electrical currents, and are compatible with devices like dimmers and timers, incandescent bulbs are popular for use in both household and commercial lighting. They’re often used in car headlamps and flashlights as well because they work both indoors and outdoors. The bipartisan Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 established efficiency standards that required bulbs to use about 25% less energy. While that didn’t necessarily ban incandescent bulbs, most were phased out of production. Today, incandescent bulbs are not as common as other types of light bulbs, but they aren’t unheard of. These types of light bulbs can be difficult to recycle because they contain small amounts of metal and glass that aren’t easily separated from one another. Many recyclers won’t accept incandescent light bulbs because the energy required to recycle them is not worth the salvaged material. That said, you can find recycling programs that accept incandescent light bulbs with some digging. Check with the recycling facility near you to determine if they accept the material or consider a mail-in program. Incandescent bulbs are difficult to recycle, so you may have to resort to throwing your old ones away when you switch to a more efficient light source, like LED. They don’t contain any hazardous chemicals, but to minimize waste that reaches a landfill, avoid buying these types of bulbs. Halogen Light Bulbs Bernard Van Berg / Getty Images Although halogen light bulbs are primarily made of glass, you can’t put them in your glass recycling bin. Halogen light bulbs are made of quartz glass that melts at a different temperature than the bottles and jars in your bin. Including a halogen light bulb in your glass recycling bin could actually ruin an entire batch of glass recyclables. Like incandescent bulbs, halogen bulbs are difficult to recycle because they contain fine wires. Many municipalities recommend that you throw halogen light bulbs in the trash instead of recycling them. That said, there are a few recyclers that accept halogen bulbs, but you’ll have to do some research to find one. There are a handful of mail-in recycling programs that will keep them out of the landfill. CFLs BanksPhotos / Getty Images Compact fluorescent light bulbs, or CFLS, are popular because they come in a variety of shapes and colors and they use less energy than incandescent bulbs. They’re the go-to bulbs for municipal buildings, schools, businesses, and hospitals across the world. When turned on, an electric current runs through a tube that contains argon and mercury and emits visible light. While they are more energy-efficient than some other types of bulbs, CFLs aren’t necessarily environmentally friendly. CFLs contain mercury, which is toxic to humans and animals. Because they are hazardous, these types of bulbs should not be thrown in the trash. Some municipalities even have laws against trashing your fluorescent bulbs, leaving recycling as the only option. The EPA suggests that consumers take advantage of local CFL recycling programs rather than disposing of them along with household trash. Several retailers, including Bartell Drugs, Lowe’s, and Home Depot, accept CFL bulbs for recycling. Once recycled, the glass, metals, and other materials in CFLs are reused to make new products. A bulb recycler uses special machines to extract mercury and break down the CFL’s glass casing and aluminum fixtures. They can reuse the mercury in new light bulbs or in products like thermostats. The glass becomes material like concrete or tile, while the aluminum is recycled as scrap metal. Not only does recycling CFLs divert waste from the landfill, but it also prevents the release of toxic mercury into the environment. Contact your local waste collection agency for recycling options in your area. What Do I Do if a CFL Breaks? Broken CFLs can release mercury, which is a severe health hazard. When a CFL breaks, take the situation seriously. Immediately have all other people and pets leave the room so they can avoid exposure.Open a window or door to the outside to air out the room for 5-10 minutes while you collect all broken glass and visible powder. Do not vacuum up the pieces because this could spread mercury-containing powder or vapor.Place all broken glass and powder in a sealable container and check with your local government about disposal requirements. LED Light Bulbs Grace Cary / Getty Images A high-efficiency lighting option, light-emitting diode (LED) light bulbs produce light up to 90% more efficiently than incandescent bulbs. They’re more efficient than CFL bulbs, too. LED light bulbs can last up to 50,000 hours, which is about 30 times longer than incandescent bulbs and 5 times longer than a typical CFL. LED bulbs work by passing an electric current through a microchip, which then illuminates a light source to produce visible light. A heat sink absorbs any heat that the LEDs produce, so the bulbs won’t be hot to the touch. With their long lifespan, lack of hazardous chemicals, and top-notch energy efficiency, LED light bulbs are the most eco-friendly bulbs on the market today. On top of that, they’re highly recyclable. Many big box stores like IKEA and Lowe’s have in-store recycling bins where you can drop off old LED bulbs. Some municipalities offer similar services. Contact your local waste management organization or a big box retailer near you to see if they accept them. The first step in the recycling process is to send LED light bulbs through a shredder, which breaks its components apart. The individual glass and metal pieces are then processed through separators or magnetic sorters, depending on the facility. The metal components of LED lights are the most valuable, so that’s what most LED light recyclers are looking to salvage. The 7 Best LED Light Bulbs of 2022 Ways to Reuse Light Bulbs Before recycling your old light bulbs, consider ways you can reuse them—as long as they don't contain harmful substances, you can give them new life with a little creativity. It’s always a good idea to reuse an item before disposing of it to conserve Earth’s finite resources and to reduce waste. Light bulbs are surprisingly versatile, especially if you’re crafty. Here are a few ideas for reusing them: Fill it with soil and tiny plants to make a terrarium Use it to hold an air plant Fill the bulb with water to make a vase Turn it into a DIY snow globe Paint it and use it as a holiday ornament Frequently Asked Questions What are light bulbs recycled into? During the recycling process, light bulbs are separated into different materials—including plastic, glass, metal, distiller phophor powder, and elemental mercury—and those materials are used to make all sorts of new things including countertops and more light bulbs. Can you recycle light bulbs in your curbside recycling bin? Many curbside recycling services will pick up LED light bulbs but not incandescent or CFL bulbs. These bulbs must be sent to a more specialized facility. Check with your city to find out whether your municipal safety department might accept them. Which light bulbs are considered hazardous waste? Only CFL and incandescent light bulbs are considered household hazardous waste (HHW) because they contain hazardous chemicals like mercury and argan. Is it illegal to throw light bulbs in the trash? It's legal to throw away light bulbs in the U.S., but you should always recycle them to make use of the raw materials and minimize waste going to landfills. View Article Sources "Fluorescent Bulbs." University of North Carolina Environmental Health and Safety. "Recycling and Disposal of CFLs and Other Bulbs That Contain Mercury." Environmental Protection Agency. "How the Energy Independence Act of 2007 Affects Light Bulbs." Environmental Protection Agency. Rice, Kevin M., et al. "Environmental Mercury and Its Toxic Effects." Journal of Preventative Medicine and Public Health, vol. 47, no. 2, 2014, pp. 74-83., doi:10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.2.74 "Cleaning Up a Broken CFL." Environmental Protection Agency. "Lighting Choices to Save You Money." U.S. Department of Energy. "LED Lighting." U.S. Department of Energy. Ganandran, G.S.B., et al. "Cost-Benefit Analysis and Emission Reduction of Energy Efficient Lighting at the Universiti Tenaga Nasional." Electrification and Renewable Energy Generation, vol. 2014, 2014, pp. 745894., doi:10.1155/2014/745894 "Study: Environmental Benefits of LEDs Greater Than CFLs." U.S. Department of Energy.