42 flowers you can eat
George M. Groutas/CC BY 1.0
The culinary use of flowers dates back thousands of years to the Chinese, Greek and Romans. Many cultures use flowers in their traditional cooking — think of squash blossoms in Italian food and rose petals in Indian food. Adding flowers to your food can be a nice way to add color, flavor and a little whimsy. Some are spicy, and some herbacious, while others are floral and fragrant. The range is surprising.
It’s not uncommon to see flower petals used in salads, teas, and as garnish for desserts, but they inspire creative uses as well — roll spicy ones (like chive blossoms) into handmade pasta dough, incorporate floral ones into homemade ice cream, pickle flower buds (like nasturtium) to make ersatz capers, use them to make a floral simple syrup for use in lemonade or cocktails. I once stuffed gladiolus following a recipe for stuffed squash blossoms — they were great. So many possibilities…
Eating flowers safely
So. As lovely as eating flowers can be, it can also be a little … deadly. Not to scare you off or anything, but follow these tips for eating flowers safely:
- Eat flowers you know to be consumable — if you are uncertain, consult a reference book on edible flowers and plants.
- Eat flowers you have grown yourself, or know to be safe for consumption. Flowers from the florist or nursery have probably been treated with pesticides or other chemicals.
- Do not eat roadside flowers or those picked in public parks. Both may have been treated with pesticide or herbicide, and roadside flowers may be polluted by car exhaust.
- Eat only the petals, and remove pistils and stamens before eating.
- If you suffer from allergies, introduce edible flowers gradually, as they may exacerbate allergies.
- To keep flowers fresh, place them on moist paper towels and refrigerate in an airtight container. Some will last up to 10 days this way. Ice water can revitalize limp flowers.
1. Allium All blossoms from the allium family (leeks, chives, garlic, garlic chives) are edible and flavorful! Flavors run the gamut from delicate leek to robust garlic. Every part of these plants is edible.
2. Angelica Depending on the variety, flowers range from pale lavender-blue to deep rose and have a licorice-like flavor.
3. Anise hyssop Both flowers and leaves have a subtle anise or licorice flavor.
4. Arugula Blossoms are small with dark centers and with a peppery flavor much like the leaves. They range in color from white to yellow with dark purple streaks.
5. Bachelor’s button Grassy in flavor, the petals are edible. Avoid the bitter calyx.
6. Basil Blossoms come in a variety of colors, from white to pink to lavender; flavor is similar to the leaves, but milder.
7. Bee balm The red flowers have a minty flavor.
8. Borage Blossoms are a lovely blue hue and taste like cucumber!
9. Calendula / marigold A great flower for eating, calendula blossoms are peppery, tangy, and spicy — and their vibrant golden color adds dash to any dish.
10. Carnations / dianthus Petals are sweet, once trimmed away from the base. The blossoms taste like their sweet, perfumed aroma.
11. Chamomile Small and daisy-like, the flowers have a sweet flavor and are often used in tea. Ragweed sufferers may be allergic to chamomile.
12. Chervil Delicate blossoms and flavor, which is anise-tinged.
13. Chicory Mildly bitter earthiness of chicory is evident in the petals and buds, which can be pickled.
14. Chrysanthemum A little bitter, mums come in a rainbow of colors and a range of flavors range from peppery to pungent. Use only the petals.
15. Cilantro Like the leaves, people either love the blossoms or hate them. The flowers share the grassy flavor of the herb. Use them fresh as they lose their charm when heated.
16. Citrus (orange, lemon, lime, grapefruit, kumquat) Citrus blossoms are sweet and highly scented. Use frugally or they will over-perfume a dish.
17. Clover Flowers are sweet with a hint of licorice.
18. Dandelion Read more about dandelions here: Backyard Forage for Dandelions.
19. Dill Yellow dill flowers taste much like the herb’s leaves.
20. English daisy These aren’t the best-tasting petals — they are somewhat bitter — but they look great!
21. Fennel Yellow fennel flowers are eye candy with a subtle licorice flavor, much like the herb itself.
22. Fuchsia Tangy fuchsia flowers make a beautiful garnish.
23. Gladiolus Who knew? Although gladioli are bland, they can be stuffed, or their petals removed for an interesting salad garnish.
24. Hibiscus Famously used in hibiscus tea, the vibrant cranberry flavor is tart and can be used sparingly.
25. Hollyhock Bland and vegetal in flavor, hollyhock blossoms make a showy, edible garnish.
26. Impatiens Flowers don’t have much flavor — best as a pretty garnish or for candying.
27. Jasmine These super-fragrant blooms are used in tea; you can also use them in sweet dishes, but sparingly.
28. Johnny Jump-Up Adorable and delicious, the flowers have a subtle mint flavor great for salads, pastas, fruit dishes and drinks.
29. Lavender Sweet, spicy, and perfumed, the flowers are a great addition to both savory and sweet dishes.
30. Lemon verbena The diminutive off-white blossoms are redolent of lemon — and great for teas and desserts.
31. Lilac The blooms are pungent, but the floral citrusy aroma translates to its flavor as well.
32. Mint The flowers are — surprise! — minty. Their intensity varies among varieties.
33. Nasturtium One of the most popular edible flowers, nasturtium blossoms are brilliantly colored with a sweet, floral flavor bursting with a spicy pepper finish. When the flowers go to seed, the seed pod is a marvel of sweet and spicy. You can stuff flowers, add leaves to salads, pickle buds like capers, and garnish to your heart’s content.
34. Oregano The flowers are a pretty, subtle version of the leaf.
35. Pansy The petals are somewhat nondescript, but if you eat the whole flower you get more taste.
36. Radish Varying in color, radish flowers have a distinctive, peppery bite.
37. Rose Remove the white, bitter base and the remaining petals have a strongly perfumed flavor perfect for floating in drinks or scattering across desserts, and for a variety of jams. All roses are edible, with flavor more pronounced in darker varieties.
38. Rosemary Flowers taste like a milder version of the herb; nice used as a garnish on dishes that incorporate rosemary.
39. Sage Blossoms have a subtle flavor similar to the leaves.
40. Squash and pumpkin Blossoms from both are wonderful vehicles for stuffing, each having a slight squash flavor. Remove stamens before using.
41. Sunflower Petals can be eaten, and the bud can be steamed like an artichoke.
42. Violets Another famous edible flower, violets are floral, sweet and beautiful as garnishes. Use the flowers in salads and to garnish desserts and drinks.
From True Food: Eight Simple Steps to a Healthier You (National Geographic, 2009) by Annie B. Bond, Melissa Breyer and Wendy Gordon.
This updated article was originally published in 2012.