8 Fast Facts You Didn't Know About Cheetahs

The fastest land animal on earth doesn't roar. It meows.

The world's fastest land mammal, the cheetah is built for speed and has natural camouflage. Gerhard Kupfner / Getty Images

Known for its breathtaking speed and distinctive spots, the cheetah is the fastest land animal on Earth. From its tear-streaked face to its spotted coat, this lanky and athletic big cat has mastered camouflage. It has a body engineered to race through the grasslands to take down prey.

Unlike other big cats, cheetahs aren't always solitary and they never roar. In fact, they sound more like your friendly house cat and are even known to meow and purr. Explore the most interesting facts about this well-known speedster.

1. Cheetahs Are the World’s Fastest Land Mammal

Cheetahs are able to go from zero to 60 miles per hour (97 kph) in just three seconds. When racing at full speed, they cover about 21 feet (6 to 7 meters) with each stride. Their feet only touch the ground about twice during each stride, according to the Cheetah Conservation Fund. After a chase, the cheetah needs about 30 minutes to catch its breath before eating. Cheetahs tend to limit chases to distances of less than 1,000 feet, since running fast creates more body heat than can be released through evaporative cooling, i.e. panting and sweating through their paws.

In 2012, 11-year-old cheetah Sarah from the Cincinnati Zoo broke her previous record, covering 100 meters at a peak speed of 61 mph (98 kph) in 5.95 seconds. Olympian Usain Bolt, who holds the (human) world record, is much slower by comparison: 100 meters in 9.58 seconds.

2. They’re Built for Speed

running cheetah
Cheetahs use their muscular, flat tails to help them steer and balance when they run. Freder / Getty Images

Cheetahs' incredible speed is a product of their body mechanics. They have a flexible spine that allows them to stretch and cover so much ground on each stride. Their long legs help them race fast and move over great distances. The cheetah also has a muscular, flat tail that functions almost like a boat’s rudder, helping them stay balanced and changed direction. Their semi-retractable claws act like cleats, helping the big cat gain traction when running, and their hard paw pads function like rubber on a tire. They have larger-than-usual nostrils to increase the flow of oxygen, and their large lungs and heart circulate blood very efficiently through their body.

3. Cheetahs Don’t Roar, They Meow and Purr

There’s nothing scary about the noises a cheetah makes. Unlike lions, which are known for their ferocious roars, cheetahs sound more like your average house cat. They meow and purr. They also make chirps and churring sounds. Listen to some of the chatty cheetahs from the Toronto Zoo.

There are four big cats that roar: lions, tigers, leopards, and jaguars. They are able to make their intimidating noises because they have a ligament instead of the epihyal bone in the voice box. The ligament stretches, creating lower sounds. Cheetahs have a fixed voice box with divided vocal cords. Like “small cats,” it allows them to purr but limits the noises they can make.

4. They’re Racing Toward Extinction

Cheetah and cub - Watching with Masai cattle herd
When cheetah habitat and prey dwindles, they occasionally will hunt livestock. 1001slide / Getty Images

There were more than 100,000 cheetahs in 1900, but now there are fewer than 7,000 adult and adolescent cheetahs in the wild. Cheetahs are classified as vulnerable on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, and they’re listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

Cheetahs face threats from habitat loss, conflicts with humans, illegal trade, and reproductive issues due to their limited genetic diversity. All of the cheetahs today appear highly inbred. When humans encroach on their territory, the big cats run out of space and run out of prey. That forces them to venture into farms and pasture, looking to livestock herds for food.

This isn't the first time that the cheetah population has been so precarious and scientists have worried that the species could go extinct. The big cat has faced two historic bottleneck events that drastically reduced its population size, according to a 2017 report in the Journal of Heredity. One event occurred 100,000 years ago and another about 10,000 to 12,000 years ago. In both instances, the population was greatly reduced, leaving the remaining cheetahs with potentially harmful mutations and a much smaller gene pool.

Interestingly, when cubs are born in protected regions like national parks or wildlife reserves, they tend to be geographically closer to large predators than if they're born in unprotected regions. This can increase cub mortality rates to as high as 90%.

5. Their Eyes Help Them Hunt

Portrait of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) cub
Dark tear lines that run from a cheetah's eyes deflect the sun and help them hunt. Richard Goluch / 500px / Getty Images

Unlike most other big cats, cheetahs hunt in the daytime, generally in the early morning or late afternoon. They climb a termite mound or small hill and use their sharp vision to locate prey, then it's off to the races. The cheetah uses its lightning speed to go careening after its dinner, knocking the prey to the ground and then latching on to its throat. They tend to eat their prey right away to avoid losing it to competitors.

Cheetahs have distinctive dark tear-mark lines that run from the corners of their eyes down to their mouth. These marks deflect the sun, making it easier for the cats to hunt during the day. Without the sun's glare, they're able to zero in on their targets, according to the Cheetah Conservation Fund.

6. They Have Natural Camouflage

Cheetah (Acynonix jubatus) and cub, Masai Mara National Reserve, Kenya
Cheetah cubs have long bristles of hair, called mantles, that help them hide in the grass. Delta Images / Getty Images

Cheetahs have spotted coats, which help them blend in with their surroundings. That not only helps them hide when they are stalking prey, but it also keeps them safe from predators, points out the National Zoo. The spots aren’t just fur-deep; their skin has black spots.

In addition to spots, cheetah cubs have what looks like a full-body mohawk. Called a mantle, this long bristle of hair runs from their neck down their back to the base of their tail. The Cheetah Conservation Fund explains that the mantle makes cubs look like honey badgers and helps them blend into tall grass. This camouflage protects them from predators like hyenas and lions.

7. Their Social Life Is a Mixed Bag

male cheetah siblings
Male cheetah siblings often live in groups called coalitions. AatishPatel / Getty Images

Except lions, which live in groups called prides, most big cats are relatively solitary animals. They prefer to be on their own except when mating or raising their young. Cheetahs are “neither solitary nor social but are a little of both,” says the San Diego Zoo.

Female cheetahs are mostly solo creatures. They only pair up to mate and then stick with their cubs while they are raising them. Their home ranges tend to be larger than males'. Males are usually solitary, but brothers will often live in groups called coalitions. Cheetahs hunt by themselves and avoid skirmishes except when fighting over mates.

8. Cheetahs Love Fast Food and Don't Drink Much

Side View Of Cheetah Running On Grassy Field Against Sky
Cheetahs prey on animals like gazelles and rabbits. Erlend Krumsvik / EyeEm / Getty Images

Cheetahs are carnivores that dine on small animals they can easily chase and kill. That includes smaller antelopes like Thomson’s gazelles and springboks, as well as rabbits, porcupines, and ground-dwelling birds, reports the San Diego Zoo. They eat the meat quickly before more aggressive predators like leopards, lions, baboons, jackals, and hyenas come upon their dinner and force them to give it up. They can even get chased away by vultures. Although cheetahs are fast, they’re not strong or aggressive enough to drag their meals very far away or guard them from these fierce competitors. Cheetahs only need to drink water every three or four days.

Save the Cheetahs

  • Do not buy products made from cheetah parts.
  • Support legislation to protect cheetahs like the Big Cat Public Safety Act.
  • Spread the word about how the illegal pet trade harms cheetahs and other endangered animals.
  • Support the work of conservation organizations such as the Cheetah Conservation Fund.
View Article Sources
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  2. U.S Fish & Wildlife Service. "Listed Animals." ECOS, 2020.

  3. Durant, S., et al. "Cheetah." IUCN Red List, 2015, doi:10.2305/iucn.uk.2015-4.rlts.t219a50649567.en

  4. O’Brien, J., et al. "Conservation Genetics Of The Cheetah: Lessons Learned And New Opportunities." Journal Of Heredity, vol. 108, no. 6, 2017, pp. 671-677, doi:10.1093/jhered/esx047

  5. "About Cheetahs." Cheetah Conservation Fund.

  6. "Why Do Cheetahs Have Spots? And Other Cheetah Facts." Smithsonian's National Zoo, 2018.