Because money was scarce, designers used low-tech resources available: wood, plastic, cardboard.They were moving away from the European influence and creating something new and Brazilian. The materials and forms were rooted in the country’s landscape and history.
José Zanine Caldas is one of the pioneers of modernist Brazilian furniture. Working in the 1950's, he was creating modernist furniture for the mass market. He fled Brazil for political reasons and returned in the late 60's when he began to make furniture using felled trees and tree roots--the remnants of the pulp industry. For him it was a form of protest against the aggressive destruction of the environment.,