How to Go Green: Water
With reporting by Manon Verchot
There is no resource more precious than water. There is also no resource that is misused, abused, misallocated, and misunderstood the way water is. Safe drinking water, healthy and intact natural ecosystems, and a stable food supply are a few of the things at stake as our water supply is put under greater and greater stress.
The picture might look grim, but opportunities to be more efficient abound. Many people have had water-saving etiquette pumped into them at one point or another, so hopefully we can make a good case for conserving the stuff with practical, everyday water-saving strategies as well as some more high-tech approaches.
Top Water Conservation Tips
- No drips
A dripping faucet can waste 20 gallons of water a day. A leaking toilet can use 90,000 gallons of water in a month. Get out the wrench and change the washers on your sinks and showers, or get new washerless faucets. Keeping your existing equipment well maintained is probably the easiest and cheapest way to start saving water.
- Install new fixtures
New, low-volume or dual flush toilets, low-flow showerheads, water-efficient dishwashers and clothes washing machines can all save a great deal of water and money. Aerators on your faucets can significantly reduce water volume; water-saving showerheads can cut the volume of water used down to 1.2 gallons per minute or less, and some even have a "pause button" to let you stop the water while soaping up or shampooing. Our interns recently pointed out that "spending about $30 on low-flow showerheads and faucets is estimated to save 45 gallons of that 260 gallons of water [used in a typical household per day], almost 18% of your usage. Splurging on a low-flow toilet could save another 50-80 gallons of water a day. Together, those changes nearly cut in half the household's daily use, saving a considerable amount of water - and passing that savings on to your water bill, as well as your water heating bill."
- Cultivate good water habits
All the water that goes down the drain, clean or dirty, ends up mixing with raw sewage, getting contaminated, and meeting the same fate. Try to stay aware of this precious resource disappearing and turn off the water while brushing your teeth or shaving and always wash laundry and dishes with full loads. When washing dishes by hand, fill up the sink and turn off the water. Take shorter showers or, as the old joke goes, shower with a friend: Treehugger TV shows you how. To put things in perspective, take a quick look at your next water bill when it arrives. It probably won't be costing you too much, but the average household consumes multiple thousands of gallons each month. See if you can make this number go down. If you're the graphing type, go nuts.
- Stay off the bottle
By many measures, bottled water is a scam. In most first-world countries, the tap water is provided by a government utility and is tested regularly. (You can look up your water in the National Tap Water Quality Database) Taste tests have shown that in many municipalities, tap water actually tastes better. Bottled water is not as well regulated and studies have shown that it is not even particularly pure. A four-year study of bottled water in the U.S. conducted by NRDC found that one-fifth of the 103 water products tested contained synthetic organic chemicals such as the neurotoxin xylene and the possible carcinogen and neurotoxin styrene. (Grist) Much bottled water doesn"t come from a "Artesian springs" and is just tap water anyhow. (Coca-Cola adds salt to its Dasani water to make it taste better, just like fast food.) Not only is it more expensive per gallon than gasoline, bottled water incurs a huge carbon footprint from its transportation, and the discarded bottles are a blight. It's no wonder that some people even think it's a sin. If you want to carry your water with you, get a bottle and fill it. (Look here for some advise on durable, non-toxic container options.) If your water at home tastes funny, try an activated charcoal or ceramic filter. Here is a comparison of home-use water filters from Grist.
- Go beyond the lawn
Naturalize it using locally appropriate plants that are hardy and don't need a lot of water. If you have to water, do it during the coolest part of the day or at night to minimize evaporation. Here is a useful calculator to figure out landscape water use. Xeriscaping is a method of landscaping that utilizes only native and low water plants. It is an especially appropriate approach for states like California and Arizona where people often plant lawns like they live in Florida despite living in the desert.
- Harvest your rainwater
Put a rain barrel on your downspouts and use this water for irrigation. Rain cisterns come in all shapes and sizes ranging from larger underground systems to smaller, freestanding ones. Some even glow!
- Harvest your greywater
Water that has been used at least once but is still clean enough for other jobs is called greywater. Water from sinks, showers, dishwashers, and clothes washers are the most common household examples. (Toilet water is often called "blackwater" and needs a different level of treatment before it can be reused.) Greywater can be recycled with practical plumbing systems like the Aqus, or with simple practices such as emptying the fish tank in the garden instead of the sink. The bottom line? One way or another, avoid putting water down the drain when you can use it for something else.
- At the car wash
Car washes are often more efficient than home washing and treat their water rather than letting it straight into the sewer system. But check to make sure that they clean and recycle the water. Better yet, try the waterless car wash. If you live in Manchester, the Levenshulme Baptist Church is recycling water from its Baptistery pool for charity car washes http://www.treehugger.com/files/2006/08/baptismal_water.php .
- Keep your eyes open
Report broken pipes, open hydrants, and excessive waste. Don't be shy about pointing out leaks to your friends and family members, either. They might have tuned out the dripping sound a long time ago.
- Don't spike the punch
Water sources have to be protected. In many closed loop systems like those in cities around the Great Lakes, waste water is returned to the Lake that fresh water comes out of. Don't pour chemicals down drains, or flush drugs down toilets; it could come back in diluted form in your water.
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Water Conservation Facts: By the Numbers
- 2.5 gallons: The amount of water per person much of the world is allocated.
- 300 gallons: The amount of water the average American family uses per day, according to the Environmental Protection Agency
- 70 percent: The amount of worldwide water use that is allocated to farming; most of these farming irrigation systems operate at only 40 percent efficiency. According to a 2002 article by Lester Brown, aquifers are depleting all over the world--in China by 2-3 metres per year. In the US, the Ogallala aquifer is shrinking rapidly. In India, aquifers are going down by 3 metres per year, in Mexico by 3.3 meters per year.
- 263: The number of rivers that either cross or demarcate international political boundaries, in addition to countless aquifers. According to the Atlas of International Freshwater Agreement, 90 percent of countries in the world must share these water basins with at least one or two other states. Major conflicts such as Darfur have been connected to water shortages, and lack of access to clean water.
- 88 percent: Of deaths from diarrhea are caused from unsafe drinking water, inadequate availability of water for hygiene, and lack of access to sanitation; this translates to more than 1.5 million of the 1.9 million children under five who perish from diarrhea each year. This amounts to 18% of all under-five deaths and means that more than 4,000 children are dying every day as a result of diarrhoeal diseases.
- $11.3 billion: The amount of money required to provide basic levels of service for drinking and waste water in Africa and Asia.
- $35 billion: the amount of money spent on bottled water in the most developed countries in the world.
- 1.5 million: Barrels of crude oil used for making PET water bottles, globally. This is enough oil to fuel 100,000 American cars for a year.
- 2.7 tons: The amount of plastic used to bottle water. 86 percent become garbage or litter.
Water Conservation: Getting Techie
Where does it come from?
The water cycle is the process by which water circulates around, over, and through the Earth. It is driven by the sun, evaporating water from the oceans, rising through the atmosphere and condensing as pure water or snow. About 505,000 cubic kilometers of water fall on the earth each year, 398,000 over the oceans. The pure water is stored as ice, as water in lakes, and in aquifers that have taken thousands of years to fill. 97% of water is stored in the oceans; 2% in the ice caps; only 1% is in lakes, groundwater or other useable sources. We draw on surface water (lakes and rivers) subsurface (groundwater through pumping) and a small amount is made (very expensively) through desalination. Read more about the water cycle at Wikipedia.
What is done to it?
Sometimes very little. Where the water sources are pure, like in New York City, very little is actually necessary. Other municipalities put their water through a three stage system of Primary Treatment (collecting and screening), Secondary Treatment (removal of solids and contaminants using filters and coagulation), and Tertiary Treatment (carbon filtering and disinfection). It is then stored in reservoirs or water towers so that it can be gravity-fed through the system.
Is it really pure?
While the consensus is that, overall, tap water is better than bottled water for you and the environment, there are some concerns. Older houses and apartment buildings may have lead plumbing which can contaminate it via pipes, solder, and old brass fittings. There is also a growing convern about low levels of antibiotics from agriculture and people disposing of medication down the toilet. Gender-bender hormones from birth control pills, along with phthalates from vinyl, are entering the water system and changing the sex of fish http://www.raysapoint.com/contra.html , lowering the sperm count of men, and doubling the number of annual male breast reduction surgeries.
Where does it go?
Too often, waster is just dumped. Often it enters combined systems that are overwhelmed when it rains. Where there is sewage treatment it is of variable quality, but a properly run modern plant can produce results that are fairly effective. The systems are designed to mimic natural treatment processes where bacteria consume the organic contaminants, and it can then be returned to lakes or as groundwater. Unfortunately, in sub-Saharan Africa almost no waste water is treated; in Latin America only about 15% is. The price is paid in diarrhea, typhus and cholera.
Where to Get Water Conservation Products
Low-flow showerheads and sink aerators
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How to Save Water: From the Archives
Dig deeper into these articles on Water from the TreeHugger and Planet Green archives.
The secret to saving water is a synthesis of good practices and good design. Keep an eye on the the TreeHugger archives for the latest methods and technologies.
- Dual-flush options are available from Caroma, and numerous others. This Argentine toilet design lets the sink water do the flushing.
- Here we have a link to a review of low-flow toilets To learn about test methodology for low-flow toilets (you'll never guess) and the results of the rigorous trials, look here (test results here).
- Composting toilets that TreeHugger has covered include the Bio-lux, a pricey Japanese throne.
- Here you'll find a review of more composting toilet options.
- The Propelair uses vacuum action to flush itself.
- The Athena replacement handle saves water by controlling flush quantity.
- Waterless urinals are made by many companies now, including Falcon and Waterless, and look here for a case study of the water saving potential of flushless urinals.
- The TwoFlush can turn any standard toilet into a dual flush fixture.
- LG's steam cleaning, front loading clothes washer boasts 35% less water consumption than a conventional model.
- This clothes washer from Sanyo doesn't use water at all, but creates ozone and fires it at your laundry.
- This washer from Bosch has earned high marks from Energy Star, and the sleek and efficient Washerman was a winner in the Electrolux Design Competition.
- Check out our eco-laundry tips here and green appliance comparison shopping here.
Dishwashers: GE's Profile SmartDispense dishwasher And find some practical tips hereThe University of Bonn pits the dishwasher against handwashing. The winner here.
Some showerheads that TreeHugger has investigated include: the Neco, the Tiara shower for two (or one, if you'd like), Bricor offers 1 gallon-per-minute heads, the Aqua Helix squeezes out an impressive .5 gallons per minute, and Real Goods has an affordable unit with a "pause" button. And if you have a tendency to lose yourself in the moment, a shower timer might also be a good idea.Water heatingPoint of use water heaters save water by delivering hot water almost immediately rather than making you wait for it while the tap runs. Some even use microwaves, and this Thermostatic fixture cuts the waiting time and looks sharp in the process. More solid tips on greener water heating can be found here.Purifying water
See some of the neat developments in water purification for third world communities, including the LifeStraw, the UV Tube, the coffeground water filter. It has even been suggested to make water filters from old tires. Before he segwayed into transportation, Dean Kamen developed a water purifier: "If you could take all the diseases you could name, 80 percent would be wiped out if you just gave people clean water." Hydro-Dis is a new three-stage disinfection system from Australia; Julie Frost, an Australian student, developed a clever pasteurization tool. To learn more about your city's water quality, check out National Tapwater Database.Bottled water
If you have your doubts about the harm of everyday bottled water, wait until you see our coverage of strange waters: water that makes you skinny, water for dogs, water that is sung to and infused with good intentions, and water with gold in it. Some bottled waters like Biota and Jivita are now using containers made from cornstarch, also known as polylactic acid (PLA). While these are non-petroleum products and are, in theory biodegradable, they are not recyclable and most likely will never break down in your backyard compost pile. Some companies like Ethos and HtoO are doing constructive things with their profits, but they still are responsible for the many ecological impacts of bottled water.
How to Save Water: Further Reading
We can't even begin to scratch the surface of the resources available for making water use more Earth-friendly. Here are some starting points for insight and advice.
- Energy Star has pages dedicated to clothes washers and dishwashers.
- Peter Coombes, the Australian expert on rainwater research, has lots to offer here.
- Rooftops to Rivers, an NRDC report on green Strategies for controlling storm water and sewer overflow.
- Bottled Water--Pure Drink or Pure Hype? A massive 1999 NRDC study of the bottled water industry.
- The US Environmental Protection Agency has a lengthy list of recommendations here.
- Lester Brown wrote about how the world is running out of fresh water in 2000; it could have been written yesterday. See Grist's coverage.
- Grist also ran a six part series on water privatization with Peter Cook and Maude Barlow.
- Is it okay to drink bottled water? Ask Leo Hickman of The Guardian.
Books worth reading
- The Ghost Map, by Steven Johnson tells the story of how mapping Cholera deaths in 1854 London led back to a single water pump.
- Cadillac Desert: The American West and Its Disappearing Water, by Marc Reisner tells the story of conflicts over water policy in the West and the resulting damage to the land, wildlife, and Indians.
- Water: The Fate of Our Most Precious Resource, by Marq de Villiers.
Movies worth watching
- Chinatown, the classic film about the politics of water in 1930s California.
- The Man Who Fell to Earth: David Bowie looking for water, lots of it.
- Thirst: A film that tells the stories of communities in Bolivia, India, and the United States that are asking fundamental questions about water, the global commons, and human rights.
- Water: Tragedy by the Ganges.