How to Go Green: Recycling

Recycling got it's start almost four decades ago, when a U.S. paper company wanted a symbol to communicate its products' recycled content to customers. The design competition they held was won by Gary Anderson, a young graphic designer from the University of Southern California. His entry, based on the Mobius strip (a shape with only one side and no end) is now universally recognized as the symbol for recycling.

To many people, recycling conjures up the blue plastic bins and bottle drives. But recycling is a design principal, a law of nature, a source of creativity, and a source of prosperity. For anyone looking to make recycling a more integral part of their lives, this guide is an overview of the basic legwork as well as some of the finer and more advanced concepts that have emerged in recent years.

To wit: "Recycling a ton of 'waste' has twice the economic impact of burying it in the ground. In addition, recycling one additional ton of waste will pay $101 more in salaries and wages, produce $275 more in goods and services, and generate $135 more in sales than disposing of it in a landfill." - From Recycling: Good for the Economy, Good for the Environment.

Read on to learn more about how recycling is green, and how you can make your recycling greener.


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Top Recycling Tips



  1. First things first, a little R & R & R
    The aphorism is so tired it almost might seem like "reduce, reuse, recycle" should go without saying. But in fact, most of us have only really heard the last third of the phrase, and they're ranked in order of importance. Reducing the amount that we consume, and shifting our consumption to well-designed products and services, is the first step. Finding constructive uses for "waste" materials is next. And tossing it in the blue bin is last. (The garbage can is not on the list, for good reason.) Through a balance of these three principals you can easily see your landfill-destined waste dwindle fast. A good example of recycling is setting your empty water bottles in the bin on the curb. But by using a water filter and reusable container you can reduce or completely eliminate your need for disposable plastic bottles.

  2. Know what you can and can't recycle

    Read up on the recycling rules for your area and make sure you don't send anything in that can't be processed. Each city has its own specifics, so try to follow those guidelines as best you can.


  3. Buy recycled
    The essence of recycling is the cyclical movement of materials through the system, eliminating waste and the need to extract more virgin materials. Supporting recycling means feeding this loop by not only recycling, but also supporting recycled products. We can now find high recycled content in everything from printer paper to office chairs.

  4. Encourage an artist
    If you know someone interested in making art from recycled materials, offer to provide supplies. Many school children need items like paper towel tubes for art projects. Older artists use everything from rubber bands to oven doors. If you know someone who teaches art classes, suggest that an emphasis be put on making art from trash. While you're at it, remind them to use recycled paper and biodegradable, earth-friendly glues, paints, and pencils whenever possible. See below for inspiration and groups that connect artists and students with useful "trash."

  5. Recycle your water
    If you're a homeowner, consider rearranging your plumbing so that rainwater or wastewater from your shower and tub is used to flush your toilet. If you have a garden, water it with leftover bathwater or dishwashing water (as long as you use a biodegradable soap). For more on water recycling see How to Go Green: Water.

  6. Recycle your greenery
    William McDonough and Michael Braungart, authors of the groundbreaking Cradle to Cradle, envision so-called "waste" divided into two categories: technical nutrients and biological nutrients. Biological nutrients are those that, at the end of their useful life, can safely and readily decompose and return to the soil. Composting is one of the simplest and most effective recycling methods. Both your garden cuttings and your green kitchen waste can go into an outdoor or indoor composter (with or without entertaining a population of worms). If you don't have a garden yourself, find neighbors or a community garden that can make use of your soil. Composting food scraps will mean your regular kitchen wastebasket fills up more slowly and also won't smell. Hotter, more active compost heaps can also consume tougher stuff like newspaper and paper napkins. After Christmas, many cities also have programs for turning your tree into mulch.

  7. Recycle your robots
    Electronics recycling is becoming more common in many urban areas, battery recycling is ubiquitous (rechargeable batteries are ecologically sounder, but even they wear out after a while), and there are a number of non-profit organizations that will take computer parts and turn them into working computers for others. Companies like Ebay have also developed programs to help your electronics find new homes. Other groups will gladly recycle your cell phone or give it to a senior citizen, as even without a contract it can still make emergency calls. If you have a major appliance that doesn't work and you'd rather replace it than try to fix it, offer it to local repair shops, trade schools, or hobbyists to tinker with. Many cities now offer hazardous waste recycling days when they will take not only hazardous waste, but electronics.

  8. Anticipate recycling
    In addition to buying recycled goods, keep a keen eye out for recyclable goods. Whenever you purchase something packaged, think about how you can reuse the packaging, return it to a shipping store for reuse, or try to otherwise recycle it. If you get something likely to run down or wear out over time, such as an electronic component, give preference to the model that can be easily upgraded or cannibalized for parts so that you don't have to junk the whole thing if one part breaks. Products that are impossibly fused together are often called "monstrous hybrids" and are, while often cheaper up front, frequently unfixable and unrecyclable.

  9. If you don't love something, let it go
    Lots of charities welcome your donations. Groups like Freecycle and Recycler's Exchange exist to help you get rid of useful objects that you just don't want to make use of. If you're in a Craigslist city, make use of the "free stuff" section. Give away clothes that don't fit, the boxes you used in your last house move, or scented soaps that don't appeal to your sensibilities. Make it a rule in your house that nothing useable goes in the trash until you've given the community a fair shot at it.

  10. Become a waste-stream analyst
    To better understand the kind of materials that enter and leave your home, office, or school, consider conducting a waste audit. Set a span of time like a week or a month, and separate your waste categories. Weigh the different kinds of material flows that go out the door (landfill waste, organic compost, aluminum, recyclable plastic, reusable material, etc.). Design a "material recovery" program that minimizes the amount going to the landfill. This is a great exercise to do with kids but can be very convincing to corporate higher-ups, too, especially since most companies pay to have their trash hauled away and can get money for recycled paper, containers, toner cartridges, corrugated cardboard, and such.


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Recycling: By the Numbers



  • 544,000: Trees saved if every household in the United States replaced just one roll of virgin fiber paper towels (70 sheets) with 100 percent recycled ones.

  • 20 million: Tons of electronic waste thrown away each year. One ton of scrap from discarded computers contains more gold than can be produced from 17 tons of gold ore.

  • 9 cubic yards: Amount of landfill space saved by recycling one ton of cardboard.

  • $160 billion: Value of the global recycling industry that employs over 1.5 million people.

  • 79 million tons: Amount of waste material diverted away from disposal in 2005 through recycling and composting.

  • 5 percent: Fraction of the energy it takes to recycle aluminum versus mining and refining new aluminum.

  • 315 kg: Amount of carbon dioxide not released into the atmosphere each time a metric ton of glass is used to create new glass products.

  • 98 percent: Percentage of glass bottles in Denmark that are refillable. 98 percent of those are returned by consumers for reuse.

  • 51.5 percent: Percentage of the paper consumed in the U.S. that was recovered for recycling in 2005.


Sources: EPA, Wikipedia's aluminum recycling entry, Wikipedia's glass recycling entry
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Recycling: Getting Techie


RES (resin identification code)
What do those numbers on the bottom of my soda bottle mean, anyway? A key to the numerical system (resin identification code) can be found via Wikipedia. An alternate page can be found courtesy of the University of Southern Mississippi's Department of Polymer Science.

Downcycling
William McDonough and Michael Braungart, authors of Cradle To Cradle, have recast the way we look at recycling, illustrating how most of what we do is actually "downcycling," or just delaying time at which, for example, a plastic bottle will come to a halt in a landfill (cradle to grave). These two innovators outline a system in which things are truly re-cycled in virtually endless loops; here's more from McDonough's site.

The Waste Hierarchy
is a useful metric for ranking the methods of material management.

Criticisms of Recycling
Recycling isn't all green and gold. For common criticisms of recycling, see this Wikipedia page.

Safe Reuse
Reuse is the second cardinal rule of recycling, but make sure that what you're doing is safe. Plastic waster, soda, and juice bottles and other plastic utensils aren't made for multiple uses and can break down, releasing chemicals, especially in heat (like the dishwasher) and cold, (like the freezer).

The concept of the Product Service System
is gaining traction. Here the idea is explored.

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Where To Get Green Gardening Supplies


Branch Home
CalMax
Children's Scrapstore
Computer Recycling Center
Digital Aid
Freecycle
Hudson Valley Materials Exchange
The Recycler's Exchange
Youth for Technology
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Recycling: From the Archives


Dig deeper into these articles on recycling from the TreeHugger and Planet Green archives.
Recycling: how to do it
It's important to know your recycling numbers so everything that's supposed to get recycled, does get recycled.

You probably don't think about it every day, but mattress recycling is at once important, and not as easy as you'd think.

Enlarge your brain with aluminum recycling knowledge from Bill Nye and his show, Stuff Happens.

Ever wondered what goes on at a recycling plant? Of course you have, and here's the answer.

When your favorite running shoes have trekked their last mile, here's how to send them to the great oval track in the sky.

Recycling everthing: our favorite examples
Q&A: Recycling Christmas Cards
Drap-Art is a Barcelona group devoted to the artistic reincarnation of materials. They host a yearly International Creative Recycling Festival.

TreeHugger passes on the advise of Salon.com on how to recycle your computer.

Crazy Crayons are remade from the stumps of their departed brethren.

TreeHugger responds to a reader who asks what she can do with her company's obsolete CDs.

The Ecopod is a slick, integrated recycling receptacle and compactor.

Smallplanet is a Canadian company that makes recyclable baby diapers.

Swap-o-Rama-Rama is a concept that's part swap meet, part crafts fair, part public art project.

"What Can We Do With Our Used Styrofoam?"

The brilliant (and sadly now defunct) groundscout.com provided a high-tech way for people to share knowledge of fabulous "garbage."

Started by a groups of web designers in Vancouver, MaterialLove is a site for exchanging, selling, and giving away useful goods that may not fit in the recycle bin.

Two entrepreneurs in Philadelphia have devised a techie system that rewards people when they recycle.

How to recycle a jumbo jet (sort of).

The world's richest self-made woman is a Chinese paper recycling entrepreneur.

The Product Service System explored.

Retrobox is a computer recycling service with a model that works.

Tennis balls are (quietly) reused by the millions in Japan.

Recycling for the 21st Century is a roundup of some of TreeHugger's favorite (tasteful) recycled products.

The clothing company Patagonia has been a genuine pioneer in making high-performance garments from recycled materials, and has recently started recycling old garments into new ones.

Tattered library books become unique journals.

Recycled denim can become home insulation.

Discarded umbrellas become fabulous gowns that look amazing on the runway.

Denim Therapy gives new life to old jeans.

Cargabags are recycled wool bags from Argentina.

Good design makes old T-shirts into great bags or even underwear.

Freitag bags are made from recycled truck tarps.

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Further Reading on Recycling


Check out these other worthwhile sources to get the scoop on recycling.
Consumer Guides
HowStuffWorks has the goods on how recycling works, and digs a little deeper to find out if what you're recycling is actually getting recycled.

A Shopper's Guide to Home Tissue Products from the NRDC will show you how to find recycled products.

Cities & Green Living: Recycling is another useful resource from the NRDC.

Compost Guide is a handy guide to recycling organic waste, Mother Nature style.

The EPA's page on recycling and pollution prevention offers a good start on the basic info you need on recycling.

The EPA has searchable databases of national and international material and waste exchanges.

Free Geek is a Portland, OR-based group that collects and "recycles used technology to provide computers, education, internet access and job skills training to those in need.

The Frugal Shopper offers up some handy recycling tips.

GreenBiz has a thorough resource on recycling office paper.

The National Recycling Coalition is a group of U.S. organizations committed to maximizing recycling to achieve benefits of resource conservation, solid waste reduction, and other planet-friendly ends.

Recycling Tips & Eco-Friendly Advice has a start-to-finish guide to good recycling behavior.

SCRIB -- The Steel Can Recycling Information Bureau -- has all the info you'd ever want to know, and more, about recycling steel.

Friends of the Earth has some good top tips to cut waste.

Trash for Teaching is your source for education and environmentalism through creative reuse.

Wikipedia's recycling page also links to focused articles on specific materials like plastic, glass, aluminum, and more.

Electronics recycling
Apple's recycling page
Dell Computer's recycling page

Ebay's Rethink program is an innovative way to put idle computers and other electronics in the hands of those who want them.The Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition is leading the way in e-waste recycling, prevention, and other eco-friendly electronics.

The EPA's eCycling mini-site shows you how to reduce the environmental impact of electronics at the end of their useful life.

Books
Garbage Land follows the trail of trash
Recycle: The Essential Guide is just what the title promises.

Tags: Cradle To Cradle | Recycling

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